New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics. These include the antibiotics of the carbapenem family, which are a mainstay for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection, among those Acinetobacter and more specifically Acinetobacter baumannii. Here are some links to studies that include a look at the relationship of NDM-1 and A. baumannii.
Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter reports that “there is an urgent need to enforce infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs to prevent the further spread of these resistant Acinetobacter species and to delay the emergence of increased resistance in the bacteria.”
Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative bacterium. It can be an opportunistic pathogen in humans, affecting people with compromised immune systems, and is becoming increasingly important as a hospital-derived (nosocomial) infection. Studies have shown that although A. baumannii might be infrequently isolated from the natural environment, the infection is more likely nosocomially acquired, likely due to its ability to persist on artificial surfaces for extended periods. It is especially prevalent at the multiple facilities to which injured soldiers are exposed during the casualty-evacuation process. It has become a serious issue in our veteran and military healthcare systems, and it is highly resistant to antimicrobials. It seems likely that it is only a matter of time before it moves more aggressively from the military healthcare system into civilian hospitals. Continued efforts to find successful preventive measures and effective treatments are imperative.
Acinetobacter baumannii: Epidemiology, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Treatment Options notes that “despite a reputation for relatively low virulence, multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter infection poses a formidable threat to patients. The cause of many outbreaks, this organism is increasingly endemic in the health care setting. . . . Treatment options are severely limited, and it doesn’t appear there have been . . . controlled trials to guide therapeutic choices. . . . Given the lack of good therapeutic options, the development of new therapies, well-controlled clinical trials of existing regimens and antimicrobial combinations, more research, and greater emphasis on the prevention of health care-associated transmission of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter infection are essential.”
The Journal of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (JMID), an international peer review medical journal in the field of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases, Virology, Parasitology and Micology, carried out a retrospective study on Acinetobacter baumannii (A.baumannii) isolates from various clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital in India and analyzed its epidemiology, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, pathogenic potential and nosocomial status.
A.baumannii is an issue in virtually all hospitals, notably VA and military facilities in the United States, because it was brought back from the Middle East by wounded soldiers.
In this study, A.baumannii isolates showed a pathogenic potential of around 54.6% and a majority were found to be carbapenem resistant. It is important to be cognizant of the fact that all A.baumannii isolations don’t necessarily mean infection, and antibiotics should only be given in clinically proven infections.
A.baumannii can live on the skin and may survive in the environment for several days. Careful attention to infection control procedures, such as hand hygiene and environmental cleaning, can reduce the risk of transmission.
The Nano Safe blog is about to change. Nano Safe, Inc., is very focused on antimicrobial coating for medical devices. In the near future we are going to turn this blog over to a sister company and they will continue to write on infection control issues for the built environment. Stay tuned for more news on the blog shift.