Studying disease in humans and animals provides early warning system

downloadZoonotic diseases account for almost 60 percent of all disease among humans. Developing a multi-disciplinary look at disease in humans and animal gives us early warning on pending issues. MERS, SARS and PEDv are all corona viruses hence they model is very similar ways.  In the links below, note the studies that clearly show PEDv and SARS are airborne dangers.

A Unified Framework for the Infection Dynamics of Zoonotic Spillover and Spread says that “disentangling the contribution of animal-to-human from human-to-human transmission is of crucial importance to inform appropriate control measures. The shape of the cumulative number of occurrences can provide indications of the modes of transmission. A concave, saturating profile is an expected outcome due to depletion of susceptibles. In contrast, a convex region in the profile of cumulative number of occurrences suggests that human-to-human transmission plays an important role. Alternative explanations are possible. A convex shape in the cumulative number of occurrences might arise from temporal variations in the model parameters (e.g. probability of contact between humans and rodents, infection prevalence in rodents, infection-response efficiency) and/or in the human population size. A fundamental gap in our current knowledge is the mechanisms governing the transition from spillover to stuttering chain to sustained transmission.”

Database of host-pathogen and related species interactions, and their global distribution discusses “interactions between species, particularly where one is likely to be a pathogen of the other, as well as the geographical distribution of species, have been systematically extracted from various web-based, free-access sources, and assembled with the accompanying evidence into a single database. The database attempts to answer questions such as what are all the pathogens of a host, and what are all the hosts of a pathogen, what are all the countries where a pathogen was found, and what are all the pathogens found in a country. Two datasets were extracted from the database, focussing on species interactions and species distribution, based on evidence published between 1950–2012. The quality of their evidence was checked and verified against well-known, alternative, datasets of pathogens infecting humans, domestic animals and wild mammals. The presented datasets provide a valuable resource for researchers of infectious diseases of humans and animals, including zoonoses.”

Role of two-way airflow owing to temperature difference in severe acute  respiratory syndrome transmission: revisiting the largest nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Hong Kong in part concludes that “revisiting the role of air distribution in SARS transmission during the large nosocomial outbreak in (a hospital ward), we found that the two-way airflow effect at the openings plays an important role in bioaerosols transmission. The most likely reason for the two-way airflow effect may be the thermal pressure effect. This paper aimed to investigate the role of air exchange owing to temperature difference in SARS transmission in (the ward) using a validated multi-zone model combining the two-way airflow effect. Within the scope of this research, the following conclusions can be drawn:

·        Air exchange owing to temperature difference played a significant role in SARS transmission during the nosocomial outbreak in Ward 8A.

·        The validated multi-zone model combining the two-way airflow effect may be a better simulation approach than CFD owing to its convenience and accuracy for actual application

·        Reducing the area of the openings between cubicles and corridor (e.g. installing curtains at the openings) may be a more convenient and economical improvement on general ward design.”

At National Geographic Channel, The Big Picture with Kal Penn, talks of the 2003 SARS outbreak in China that quickly became a global epidemic. It attempts to get to the origins of the outbreak to understand how virus spreads.

Also, Evidence of infectivity of airborne porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and detection of airborne viral RNA at long distances from infected herds.

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